Conjonctions en anglais excluant le futur et le conditionnel

Bonjour.
J'ai entrepris d'aider mes fils, âgés de treize et dix ans, dans leur apprentissage de l'anglais, et cela m'a conduit à me poser quelques questions de grammaire.   Je sollicite donc les réponses d'anglophones ou d'anglicistes, et les remercie d'avance de leur bienveillance et de leur indulgence.   Ces questions sont relatives à des propositions ne comportant pas d'auxiliaire modal en anglais, mais dont la traduction en français nécessite la présence d'un futur ou d'un conditionnel.
Je diviserai mon message en deux parties.


1)  CONJONCTIONS EXCLUANT, EN ANGLAIS, LE FUTUR ET LE CONDITIONNEL

Voici ce qu’écrivent Michael Swan et Françoise Houdart, dans la « Pratique de l’anglais de A à Z » (fiche 156) :
« En anglais, on n’emploie pas le futur et le conditionnel dans la plupart des propositions subordonnées — c’est-à-dire après les conjonctions “when”, “after”, “before”, “as soon as”, “as long as”, “until”, “while”, “whenever”, “wherever”, “who”, “what”, “as much as”, “if”, “in case” et certaines autres. »

On le vérifie facilement pour les propositions circonstancielles de temps, BIEN QUE l’on trouve aussi les citations suivantes :

‘I’ve arranged to be accommodated there, for as long as I shall stay,’ I answered. (Wuthering Heights, chapter 32)

Penny McAllister’s parents welcomed the decision but insisted the verdict should have been murder and the sentence life. “Our daughter would have been 29 years old when this person will be walking the streets again,” said 51-year old Norman Squire at his home in Arundel, West Sussex. (quoted by Julie Teisseire)

On le vérifie aussi pour les subordonnées introduites par “whoever”, “whichever”, “wherever”,    et “whatever”.   Ainsi trouve-t-on :

I couldn’t stay with family, not even distant relatives.   My aunt and uncle would know where to look for me, and whoever HAD TAKEN me in would be in trouble. (Fauziya Kassindja, Do they hear you when you cry? chapter 13)

They can’t send me back.   We have family all over West Africa.   My aunt and uncle would find me wherever I WENT.   I have to stay here.  They have to give me asylum! (Chapter 19).

She told me later that she knew full well that what she was about to say went against everything she’d been taught in law school, knew full well that once she spoke the words she was about to speak, there was no taking them back[…].   “Fauziya, listen to me,” Layli said.   “Whatever HAPPENS in the courtroom today, I’ll stay with you.   I won’t leave you.  I’ll keep fighting for you.”  Did she mean it?  Did she know what she was saying?  I searched her eyes.   “No matter what?” I asked her.   I knew the answer.   I saw it in her eyes.   But I wanted to hear her say it.   “No matter what,” she said.   “If the judge denies us, then we’ll appeal.   We’ll keep fighting until we win.   I’ll do whatever it TAKES.”   That was one of the most moving moments of my life.   We joined hearts in that moment.   We were sisters now.   She knew it.   I knew it.   I wasn’t alone anymore.  I’d never be alone again.   But I had Ferlise!   Oh God, I had Ferlise.   “If we have to appeal, do I have to stay in prison?” I asked.   “I’ll try to get you on parole,” Layli said […].   She told me about her upcoming trip to Beijing to attend the women’s conference […].   If I lost, then she’d go to the conference and talk to everybody she met there about my case.   She’d tell everyone about me.   Every single person she met.    She’d meet people there who’d want to help me and know how to help me.
I belonged to God.   If it was His will that I stay in prison, then I’d stay in prison and worship Him in prison.   Wherever He PUT me, whatever He DID with me, I would praise His name. (Chapter 28)

I was transfered to minimum!  I’d given up on that ever happening and resigned myself to staying in maximum until I went home, or died, whichever CAME first. (Chapter30)

CEPENDANT, on trouve aussi :

He couldn’t afford to pay whatever it would cost for me to appeal. (Fauziya Kassindja, Do they hear you when you cry? chapter 26)

I was waiting not for a dawn, but for the chance to return home, to whatever new kind of nightmare I would face there. (Chapter 27)

Les verbes non accompagnés d’un auxiliaire modal appartiendraient-ils à des propositions circonstancielles, alors que ceux accompagnés d’un tel auxiliaire appartiendraient à des subordonnées complétives ou relatives déterminatives ?



L’affirmation de M. Swan et F. Houdart semble, au vu des romans que j’ai parcourus, être sujette à discussion, en ce qui concerne les conjonctions « who », « what » (et « whom »).   On trouve bien :

And above all, pass on this message of mine to those who COME after you. (Orwell, Animal Farm, chapter 1)

Why should we care what HAPPENS after we are dead? (Chapter 2)

This work was strictly voluntary, but any animal who ABSENTED himself from it would have his rations reduced by half. (Chapter 6)


MAIS l’on trouve aussi, parmi de nombreux autres exemples :

Do you know what would happen if we pigs failed in our duty? (G. Orwell, Animal Farm, chapter 3)

They grudged no effort or sacrifice, well aware that everything that they did was for the benefit of themselves and those of their kind who would come after them, and not for a pack of idle, thieving human beings. (Chapter 6)


We cried, we prayed, we waited to find out what would happen to us. (Fauziya Kassindja, Do they hear you when you cry? chapter 22)

She was going to China, where she was hoping to meet people who’d be able to help me. (Chapter 25)

Whoever got me out first, that was who I’d go with. (Chapter 26)

That night, I lay awake in my bunk wondering what would happen to me after they sent me back. (Chapter 27)





2) AUTRES PROPISITIONS SANS AUXILIAIRE MODAL

On trouve dans la littérature un assez grand nombre de verbes au « present », au « present perfect », au « preterit » ou au « past perfect », là où, en français, on attend un futur ou un conditionnel.   Il ne paraît pas évident, notamment dans les citations suivantes,  que ces verbes (en caractères majuscules) soient au subjonctif anglais.

On peut concevoir, pour certains de ces verbes, que le phénomène soit dû à une concordance des temps, comme dans la citation ci-après, où Fauziya Kassindja, indique ce qui se passerait si l'on entreprenait de se rendre à pied ou en taxi jusqu’à la maison où elle passa son enfance.   Ainsi le « Had been kicking up » s’explique, me semble-t-il, par la simple antériorité par rapport à      « by the time you arrived ».   Mais qu’en est-il pour la plupart des autres verbes, comme le « met » dans la même citation, où le « were » dans la citation de Roald Dahl ? 



‘Why, yes,’ returned the captain, scratching his head; ‘and making a large allowance, sir, for all the gifts of Providence, I should say we WERE pretty close hauled.’ (Stevenson, Treasure Island, chapter 18)


What is to guarantee that my orders ARE not changed?  What is to guarantee that it STARTS within six hours of when it should start? (Hemingway, For Whom the Bell Tolls, chapter 1)


"Would you always have to be close to the thing you WERE pushing?" (Dahl, Matilda, chapter 16)


If you did decide to walk to my house, you’d go up a gentle hill, on unpaved roads, asking directions of anyone you MET if you weren’t sure how to go, and although it would be an easy walk, you’d probably feel kind of dirty by the time you arrived because of all the sand you’D BEEN KICKING UP.   So you might decide to go to my house by car, instead.   Then you’d hire a taxi at the gare routière in town and tell the driver, “Take me to Zongo.” — “Which part?” he’d want to know. —“Al-Hamdu.”— “Where in Al-Hamdu? — “I’m going to Tchambakomé.”  After the taxi dropped you off at the mosque, you’d just tell anybody you MET on the street where you wanted to go.  (Fauziya Kassindja, Do they hear you when you cry? chapter 2)

After greeting Ayisha, the nachane led her to our food-storage, where any accidental spills that OCCURED while she was applying the laylay dye wouldn’t matter. (Chapter 8)




Bowman told Rahuf we needed to “document” my story – produce letters, papers, and anything else we could get that SHOWED I was telling the truth. (Chapter 19)
.


If the judge ruled against me and we had to appeal, he said, the record would be all we HAD to stand on. (Chapter 24)

She told me later that she knew full well that what she was about to say went against everything she’d been taught in law school, knew full well that once she spoke the words she was about to speak, there WAS no taking them back[…].   “Fauziya, listen to me,” Layli said.   “Whatever happens in the courtroom today, I’ll stay with you.   I won’t leave you.  I’ll keep fighting for you.”  Did she mean it?  Did she know what she was saying?  I searched her eyes.   “No matter what?” I asked her.   I knew the answer.   I saw it in her eyes.   But I wanted to hear her say it.   “No matter what,” she said.   “If the judge denies us, then we’ll appeal.   We’ll keep fighting until we win.   I’ll do whatever it takes.”   That was one of the most moving moments of my life.   We joined hearts in that moment.   We were sisters now.   She knew it.   I knew it.   I wasn’t alone anymore.  I’d never be alone again.   But I had Ferlise!   Oh God, I had Ferlise.   “If we have to appeal, DO I HAVE to stay in prison?” I asked.   “I’ll try to get you on parole,” Layli said […].   She told me about her upcoming trip to Beijing to attend the women’s conference […].   If I lost, then she’d go to the conference and talk to everybody she MET there about my case.   She’d tell everyone about me.   Every single person she MET.    She’d meet people there who’d want to help me and know how to help me.
I belonged to God.   If it was His will that I stay in prison, then I’d stay in prison and worship Him in prison.   Wherever He put me, whatever He did with me, I would praise His name. (Chapter 28)

After reading through the transcript, Karen immediately gave Denise and Nileema two new assignments.   Assigment Number one: Get to work on preparing a sworn affidavit in which I TOLD my entire story clearly and consistently. (Chapter 28)


Not only did the BIA [Board of Immigration Appeals] approve Karen’s request for oral arguments but the case would be heard “en banc” […].   It was also a good sign that the decision they MADE would be designated as precedent. (Chapter 30)


Gentle drilled the recruits as hard as he could, took a lot of pride in it.   He knew why they were there.   It wasn’t about soldiering, like Bradley thought, or about uniforms and rifles to keep or extra pairs of pants.   It was about death.   They were all meant to die out there.   Some wouldn’t, but they would have no control over whether or not.   If they did live, the deaths they would witness, the blood, the gore, the frozen-in-death looks of horror and surprise would never leave them.   What they WITNESSED would be in every grass-scented breath of wind, in every trembling leaf, in the eyes of every person they would ever say I love you to.   The memories would come up upon them at odd times, from stray sensory connections, when they made love to women and held the warm bodies of their children. (Andrew Huebner, American by Blood)

For one thing, if you were dressed — as Nikki was — by Versace, Ultimo, and Gucci, you DIDN’T want to use public transportation. (Saul Bellow, Ravelstein)


EN RÉSUMÉ, comment un Français, confronté à de telles phrases, peut-il savoir quand il doit mettre un auxiliaire modal et quand il ne le doit pas?

Je vous prie de m'excuser pour la longueur du message.

Cordialement et respectueusement.

2

Conjonctions en anglais excluant le futur et le conditionnel

Michel a écrit :

Je vous prie de m'excuser pour la longueur du message.

A réduire au 1/10e avant d'espérer la moindre réponse!

3

Conjonctions en anglais excluant le futur et le conditionnel

Je pense comme J-L P que le message est bien long aussi
J'ai lu 1/5eme et me suis arrêté !

Conjonctions en anglais excluant le futur et le conditionnel

Bonjour.
Je condense mon message initial.

Comment expliquez-vous que les verbes en caractères majuscules dans les citations suivantes ne soient pas au conditionnel?

"Would you always have to be close to the thing you WERE pushing?" (Dahl, Matilda, chapter 16)


If you did decide to walk to my house, you’d go up a gentle hill, on unpaved roads, asking directions of anyone you MET if you weren’t sure how to go, and although it would be an easy walk, you’d probably feel kind of dirty by the time you arrived because of all the sand you’D BEEN KICKING UP.   So you might decide to go to my house by car, instead.   Then you’d hire a taxi at the gare routière in town and tell the driver, “Take me to Zongo.” — “Which part?” he’d want to know. —“Al-Hamdu.”— “Where in Al-Hamdu? — “I’m going to Tchambakomé.”  After the taxi dropped you off at the mosque, you’d just tell anybody you MET on the street where you wanted to go.  (Fauziya Kassindja, Do they hear you when you cry? chapter 2)

If the judge ruled against me and we had to appeal, he said, the record would be all we HAD to stand on. (Chapter 24)

Not only did the BIA [Board of Immigration Appeals] approve Karen’s request for oral arguments but the case would be heard “en banc” […].   It was also a good sign that the decision they MADE would be designated as precedent. (Chapter 30)

Merci d'avance.

Cordialement et respectueusement

Conjonctions en anglais excluant le futur et le conditionnel

Bonsoir.
Pour ceux que cela intéresse, je signale que j'ai, notamment, abordé le problème de "la simplification des temps".   On trouve des explications dans "PRACTICAL ENGLISH USAGE" de Michael Swan (3rd edition,  "fully revised", Oxford  University Press ; pages 573-5, entry 580).
Cordialement et respectueusement.